Quiz Questions & Answers

January 14th
1) What is the main way to treat Cholera?
     – Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), replenishing fluids & electrolytes that have been lost

2) What is one reservoir for vibrio cholerae?
     – Humans (or human feces), contaminated food/water.

3) From the E. Coli article, “Domestic hygiene and diarrhea: Pinpointing the problem”: In infants, what is a major risk factor for diarrheal disease? They suggest that mothers instead perform what behaviour to avoid this?
     – Bottle-feeding is be a major risk factor for diarrhoeal disease in infants. Breast-feeding not only protects against infection through better nutrition and the supply of maternal antibodies to the infant, but also reduces the contact that the child has with milk and bottles which may have become contaminated with pathogenic agents.

January 21st
1) Besides fever, what are 3 symptoms of Malaria?
     – Fever, shivering, cough, respiratory distres, pain in joints, headache, watery diarrhea, vomiting, convulsions. Severe: jaundice, kidney failure, severe anemia.

2) African trypanosomiasis (=African sleeping sickness) is transmitted how?
     – Through the bite of a Tsetse fly.

3) The chronic phase of Chagas’ disease is characterized by an undetectable level of parasites in the bloodstream. Where can the parasites be found instead? 2 choices (general).
     – The intestinal tract (destruction of parasympathetic plexus, dilation of intestinal organis) or heart (destroy conducting fibres, ganglion cells, muscle. Cause conduction defects as a result of a dilated heart. Cardiomyopathy.)

January 28th
1) What are the two hosts in which the Schistosomiasis parasite reproduces?
    – Human, snail
    Bonus: what form of reproduction occurs in each host?
    – Human – sexual repro. Snail – asexual repro.

2) What stage of the parasite life cycle causes most of the complications (gastrointestinal, cardiopulmonary, etc) in patients with Schistosomiasis?
    – The “chronic infection” stage –> the stage in which eggs are produced and lodge in different areas of the body, causing inflammation and tissue damage.

3) State one of the reasons (discussed in the readings) for why TB is so difficult to control.
     – Diagnostic tools are old and ineffective
     – Prolonged treatment required – failure to adhere to long treatment courses results in resistant strains and relapse.
     – MDR, XDR TB, which have come about as a result of inconsistent or partial treatment
     – HIV co-infection

February 4th
1) What is the natural reservoir for the plague?
    – Wild rodents
    Human infection occurs when humans come into contact with _____A______ and associated ___B___.
    – A: Wild rodents B: Fleas

2) How can yellow fever be prevented? Is this mode of prevention relatively effective?
     – By a live, attenuated vaccine. 99–100% of immunized individuals develop neutralizing antibodies after vaccination, so yes, this mode of prevention is effective.

3) What is one of the main reasons for the resurgence of epidemic Dengue/DHF in recent years? (from Gubler article)
  – Demographic and societal changes such as population growth, urbanization and modern transportation (= air travel) have contributed greatly to the increased incidence and geographical spread of dengue activity.

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